Contractions and Schwa

Contractions and schwa let you speak faster and sound more natural in conversation. 

If you're not used to reduction, it's better to practice slowly. Don't go too fast at first.

1) Spoken or written: 
I should not have waited so long. I shouldn't have waited so long.

2) Only spoken, not written: I shouldn't've waited so long.

3) Reduction spoken, not written: How long've yƏ been here?

4) Informal conversation: Use the weak form of you - yƏ - What've yƏ been up to?

5) Written or spoken: How long have you been here?

6) Reduction spoken, not written: How long've yƏ been here?

7) Content words are more prominent: HOW LONG've yƏ BEEN HERE?

8) Informal conversation: Use the weak form of you - yƏ - WHAT've yƏ BEEN UP to?

9) Contrast - yƏ YOU

WHAT've yƏ BEEN UP \\ to? \\
Eh, not too much. WHAT've YOU BEEN UP \\ to? \\

10) Intonation falls at the end of a phrase or sentence: WHAT've yƏ BEEN UP \\ to? \\ 

What does the upside down e mean?